Lecture on Data Independence
Content covered: 
  • In this lecture the concept of Data Independence has been explained.
  • Data Independence: Capacity of changing some part of schema without affecting entire schema either by deleting old database or creating new database.
  • 3 levels of schema are:
  1. Application Schema: application programs run at this level
  2. Logical/Conceptual Schema: relationship exists
  3. Physical Schema: Storage level
  • Logical Data Independence: Capacity of changing conceptual level /logic without affecting application program
  • Physical Data Independence: Capacity of changing physical schema without affecting logical schema.
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